The creation of the independent nation represents the triumph of ethnic and cultural politics. The region that is now Bangladesh has been part of a number of important political entities, including Indian empires, Buddhist kingdoms, the Moghul empire, the British empire and the Pakistani nation.
Until 1947 Bangladesh was known as East Bengal province and had been part of Great Britain 's India holding since the 1700s. In 1947, Britain , in conjunction with India 's leading indigenous political organizations, partitioned the Indian colony into India and Pakistan . The province of East Bengal was made part of Pakistan and was referred to as East Pakistan . West Pakistan was carved from the northwest provinces of the British Indian empire. This division of territory represented an attempt to create a Muslim nation on Hindu India's peripheries. However, the west and east wings of Pakistan were separated by more than 1,200 miles of India , creating cultural discontinuity between the two wings.
But the movement for autonomy for East Pakistan started within a couple of years because of language and cultural difference and economic disparity between the two wings. The seeds of independence were sown through the Language Movement of 1952 to recognize Bangla as a state language. Ultimately the then East Pakistan emerged as a sovereign and independent state of Bangladesh in 1971 after nine month - long war of Liberation (starting on 26 March 1971 ) in which 3 million people courted martyrdom